21 Januari 2022   


Hypertension is the most common primary diagnosis in the United States. It affects approximately 86 million adults (≥20 years) in the United States and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. 

Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or more, or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or more

Normal: Systolic lower than 120 mm Hg, diastolic lower than 80 mm Hg 

Prehypertension: Systolic 120-139 mm Hg, diastolic 80-89 mm Hg 

Stage 1: Systolic 140-159 mm Hg, diastolic 90-99 mm Hg 

Stage 2: Systolic 160 mm Hg or greater, diastolic 100 mm Hg or greater 

Recommendations to lower BP and decrease cardiovascular disease risk include the following, with greater results achieved when 2 or more lifestyle modifications are combined 


  • Weight loss (range of approximate systolic BP reduction [SBP], 5-20 mm Hg per 10 kg) 
  • Limit alcohol intake to no more than 1 oz (30 mL) of ethanol per day for men or 0.5 oz (15 mL) of ethanol per day for women and people of lighter weight (range of approximate SBP reduction, 2-4 mm Hg) 
  • Reduce sodium intake to no more than 100 mmol/day (2.4 g sodium or 6 g sodium chloride; range of approximate SBP reduction, 2-8 mm Hg)[8] 
  • Maintain adequate intake of dietary potassium (approximately 90 mmol/day) 
  • Maintain adequate intake of dietary calcium and magnesium for general health 
  • Stop smoking and reduce intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol for overall cardiovascular health 
  • Engage in aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes daily for most days (range of approximate SBP reduction, 4-9 mm Hg)