Hand Foot Mouth Disease HFMD

 18 Mei 2022   

Hand foot mouth disease

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral illness that presents as a vesicular eruption in the mouth, can also involve the hands, feet, buttocks, and/or genitalia. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common and infrequently fatal in children under 5 years of age.

Coxsackievirus A type 16 (CVA16) is the etiologic agent involved in most cases of HFMD.

Initially, skin rash appear on the mouth, tongue, and/or hard palate. Progress to blister become surrounded by an red area. Skin rash develop in approximately 75% of patients with HFMD.

 A fever of 38-39°C may be present for 24-48 hours

 

 The diagnosis of HFMD is typically based on clinical physical examination.

There is no antiviral medicine specific for the HFMD. The healing processes depend on body immunity 

Planning treatment for HFMD is

  • Ensure adequate fluid intake to prevent dehydration; cold liquids are generally preferable
  •  Spicy or acidic substances may cause discomfort
  •  Intravenous hydration may be necessary if the patient has moderate-to-severe dehydration or if discomfort precludes oral intake
  • Fever may be treated with antipyretics
  • Pain may be treated with standard doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen
  • Direct analgesia may also be applied to the oral cavity via mouthwashes or sprays

Infection generally occurs via the fecal-oral route or via contact with skin lesions and oral secretions. Viremia develops, followed by invasion of the skin and mucous membranes.

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